The Scientific Review on Sex Dolls and Sex Robots!

Lux Botics managed to find a scientific review on sex dolls and sex robots on the National Library of Medicine (, with the full link to the review here:


In 2050, it will be perfectly normal for women and men to experience love and sex with robots. This bold prediction from roboticist David Levy [] started a debate, now more than a decade after, on the ethics, design, use, and effects of human-like, anatomically correct sex robots and of sex dolls, their noninteractive, immobile precursors. Futurologist Ian Pearson [] went further by predicting that by 2050, women and men will have more sex with robots than with their conspecifics. One may question the validity of these predictions, but there is no doubt that technological change affecting all areas of life will not leave human sexualities unaffected. Significant changes in sexual behavior because of digital media and technologies are already well established [,]. Embodied technologies such as sex dolls and sex robots should not be overlooked in this context, especially as the popularization of the sexual uses of human-like material artifacts has long since begun.

So-called sex toys representing human body parts (eg, penis-shaped dildos and vibrators) are widely used and normalized. The lifetime prevalence of vibrator use, for example, is approximately 50% for heterosexual-identified women and men in the United States and Germany [,]. Sex toys are also popular in noncisgender and nonheterosexual populations []. Through web-based retailers, the sex toy market has expanded and diversified in recent decades, successfully targeting female customers in particular []. In the digital age, sex toys are becoming increasingly technologically advanced. Vibrators having integrated cameras are now available that can be remotely controlled by a partner in a long-distance relationship or that can synchronize with the user’s digital music playlist or preferred virtual reality porn. The development of innovative sex toys is, at least in part, pushed by customer demand. This is demonstrated by crowdfunding projects in which future customers grant investment money to entrepreneurs who bring new sex toys to the market (eg, the Ambrosia Vibe, a so-called bionic dildo providing haptic biofeedback while strapped on). There is also growing interest in the development of sex toys for aging populations and for people with disabilities, for instance, sex toys that are mind-controlled and therefore do not require hand function [,].'


In order to do this review they research articles on the subject using these keywords:


'Keywords: sex toys, sexual objectification, anthropomorphization, embodied sexual fantasies, parasocial interactions and relationships, mobile phone'


The litterature search for the review is described here:


'Literature Search

To search for relevant academic publications on sex dolls and sex robots, the following 5 scientific literature databases covering different disciplines were used to ensure a multidisciplinary, multidatabase search strategy:

  1. Scopus (largest academic literature database, approximately 57 million references, covering different disciplines, 1960-current),
  2. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE; approximately 28 million references, focus on medicine, 1950-current),
  3. PsycINFO (approximately 4 million references, focus on psychology, 1806-current),
  4. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Xplore (approximately 4.5 million references, focus on technology, 1872-current), and
  5. Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library—Guide to Computing Literature (approximately 3 million references, focus on computing, 1950-current).

For sex dolls, the search terms “sex doll,” “sex dolls,” “doll sex,” “love doll,” “love dolls,” and “doll love” were used. For sex robots, the search terms “sex robot,” “sex robots,” “sexbot,” “sex bot,” “robot sex,” “love robot,” “love robots,” “lovebot,” “love bot,” and “robot love” were used. Search terms were applied to publication titles, abstracts, and keywords. Searches were limited to the English language, without publication date, publication type, or study type restrictions.

The search strategy was validated through the retrieval of a key set of relevant publications in Scopus, where 24 citations for sex dolls and 73 citations for sex robots were identified. The Scopus search strategy was then translated to the other 4 databases and executed between August 6, 2019, and August 9, 2019 (Multimedia Appendix 1 shows the full documentation of the electronic search strategy). Bibliographic information for all search results was exported from the databases into the citation management software Citavi 5.7.1 (Swiss Academic Software GmbH).'


Link to the full review here:

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